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11 Jan

Sixth Buddhist Council : 1954

Sixth Buddhist Council : 1954
Bhadanta Vicittasarabhivamsa 500 buddhist scholars from 8 countries participated in this council
Mahayana and Hinayana
A Yana is a vehicle A Hinayana is a lesser vehicle while a Mahayana is a Great vehicle
Hinayana
The other names of Hinayana are: Deficient Vehicle, Abandoned Vehicle or Defective Vehicle
It believes in the original teaching of Buddha or Doctrine of Elders
Does not believe in Idol worship and tries to attain individual salvation through self discipline and meditation Ultimate aim of Hinayana is thus nirvana
Stharvivada or Thervada is a Hinayana sect
Asoka Patronized Hinayana
Pali, the language of masses was used by the Hinayana scholars
Mahayana
Mahayana or “great vehicle” believes in the heavenliness of Buddha and Idol worship of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas embodying Buddha Nature
It spread from India to various countries including China and South East Asian nations
Zen, Pure Land, Tiantai, and Nichiren, Shingon and Tibetan Buddhism are traditions of Mahayana
Mahayana believed in universal liberation from suffering for all beings (hence the “Great Vehicle”) Ultimate aim of Mahayana is “spiritual upliftment”
It allows salvation to be alternatively obtained through the grace of the Amitābha Buddha by having faith and devoting oneself to mindfulness of the Buddha
It believes in Mantras Language of Mahayana was predominantly Sanskrit
Similarity between Hinayana versus Mahayana
Both adopt one and the same Vinaya, and they have in common the prohibitions of the five offenses, and also the practice of the Four Noble Truths
Bodhisattva
A Bodhisattva means one who has essence of enlightment Anyone who has a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all is a Bodhisattva It’s a very popular subject in Buddhist art A bodhisattva is bound to enlightment and refers to all who are destined to become Buddhas in this life or another life There are celestial bodhisattvas which are manifestations of Gautam Buddha Important 8 Bodhisattvas are as follows:
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara encompasses all Buddhas In China he is known as Guānshìyīn Púsà, in tibetan as Chenrezig, in Thai as Avalokitesuarn He is said to incarnate in Dalai Lama He is depicted as holding a lotus flower He is depicted as female alsoA cave wall painting of Avalokiteśvara is devoted in Ajanta Caves as Padmapani
Manjusri
He is known as Wénshū in Chinse, Jampelyang in Tibetan and is a manifestation of great wisdom and meditation Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand
Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra means Universal Worthy and he is associated with meditation Known as Fugen Bosatsu in Japanese and very popular in Japan among the Tendai and Shingon sects His manifestation is Action and he is key figure in Flower Garland Sutra
Ksitigarbha
Ksitigarbha is usually depicted as a Buddhist monk in the Orient / East Asia Ksitigarbha means Earth Womb he is regarded as Bodhisattva of Earth or Hell beings or Mortals He is regarded as guardian of children and patron deity of deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture he carries a staff Ksitigarbha, Samantabhadra, Manjusri, and Avalokitesvara are the principal Bodhisattvas of East Asian Mahayana Buddhism

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