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31 Jan

Endogenic Forces and Evolution of Land forms Endogenic Forces – Internal forces in detail

Endogenic forces a can be classified as slow movements (diastrophic) and sudden movements. Slow movements cause changes very gradually which might not be visible during a human lifetime.

Slow Movements (Diastrophic forces) Diastrophic forces refer to forces generated by the movement of the solid material of the earth’s crust. All the processes that move, elevate or build portions of the earth’s crust come under diastrophism.

Diastrophism includes:

  • ➢ orogenic processes involving mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust.
  • ➢ epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust.
  • ➢ earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements.
  • ➢ plate tectonics involving horizontal movements of crustal plates.

Slow movements can again be classified as vertical movements and horizontal movements.

Vertical Movements (Epeirogenic movements):

  • ➢ Vertical movements are mainly associated with the formation of continents and plateaus. They are also called as Epeirogenic movements
  • ➢ The broad central parts of continents are called cratons and are subject to epeirogeny.
  • ➢ They do not bring any changes in the horizontal rock strata.
  • ➢ While they cause upliftment of continent, they can also cause subsidence of continent.
  • ➢ These movements are originated from the center of the earth.

Horizontal Movements (Orogenic Movements):

  • ➢ Horizontal forces acts on the earth’s crust from side to side to cause these movements.
  • ➢ They are also known as orogenic movements (mountain building).
  • ➢ They bring a lot of disruptions to the horizontal layer of strata leading to a large structural deformation of earth’s crust.
  • ➢ They can be classified as forces of compression and forces of tension.


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