DAILY TOPICS

19/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

UPSC – DECEMBER MONTH CURRENT AFFAIRS COMPILATION

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TNPSC – DECEMBER MONTH CURRENT AFFAIRS – TAMIL – COMPILATION

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TNPSC – DECEMBER MONTH CURRENT AFFAIRS – ENGLISH – COMPILATION

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18/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

Schemes for TNPSC and UPSC Exam in English


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Schemes for TNPSC and UPSC Exam in Tamil


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Schedules of the Indian Constitution


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The women get importance in Mayor Seats in Tamil Nadu


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07/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

Revolutions in India


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Green Revolutions in India


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05/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Central Office is where the Governor sits and where policies are formulated.


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Preamble to the Indian Constitution

A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the document’s philosophy and objectives.

In a Constitution, it presents the intention of its framers, the history behind its creation, and the core values and principles of the nation.

The preamble basically gives idea of the following things/objects:

Source of the Constitution

Nature of Indian State

Statement of its objectives

Date of its adoption


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04/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

Jal Jeevan Mission

JJM aims to ensure assured tap water supply or ‘Har Ghar Jal’ to all rural households by 2024.

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Cauvery River System

The Cauvery River (Kaveri) is designated as the ‘Dakshi Bharat ki Ganga’ or ‘the Ganga of the South’.
The Cauvery River rises at an elevation of 1,341 m at Talakaveri on the Brahmagiri range near Cherangala village of Kodagu (Coorg) district of Karnataka.

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Padhe Bharat Campaign

The Campaign is in alignment with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, –which emphasises on promotion of joyful reading culture for children by ensuring availability of age appropriate reading books for children in local/mother tongue/regional/tribal Language.



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03/01/2022 DAILY TOPICS

American Revolution, American Civil War, Declaration of Independence, Boston Tea Party; factors, outcomes, events.

After the discovery of the American continent, there was a continuous migration of people from Europe to the New World. South America was colonized by Spain. The English and the French established their colonies in the North America. By the mid eighteenth century, the English had established their thirteen colonies along the Atlantic coast. Landless peasants, people seeking religious freedom and traders had settled there.
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20/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Gulf Cooperation Council and India


Recently, India had a virtual meeting with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a leading regional organisation comprising almost all Arab countries.
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India Becomes the Highest Recipient of Remittances


According to the World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief, India has become the world’s largest recipient of Remittances, receiving USD 87 billion (a gain of 4.6 % from previous year) in 2021.
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Continuation of PMGSY I and II and RCPLWEA


The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) gave its approval for continuation of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-I and II (PMGSY-I and II) upto September, 2022 for completion of balance road and bridge works.
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Proposed Norms for Digital Lending: RBI


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Working Group (WG) Committee has made recommendations pertaining to Digital Lending, including a separate legislation to prevent illegal digital lending activities.
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RERA is Retroactive: SC


The Supreme Court (SC) interpreted that the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA) is retroactive.
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19/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) Scheme


The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has announced a new National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) to use technology for better learning outcomes in Higher Education.
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Massive Open Online Courses


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is a free Web-based distance learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students.
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Initiatives of AICTE


The Union Human Resource Development Minister has launched several initiatives of the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in order to improve the technical education in India.
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SWAYAM and SWAYAM Prabha


the Union Minister for Human Resource Development held a detailed review of the National online education platform SWAYAM and the 32 Direct-to-Home (DTH) Television Education Channels SWAYAM Prabha.
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Covid-19 Impact on Learning: ASER 2021


Recently, the 16th edition of the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER 2021) survey was released. The survey analysed the impact of Covid-19 on learning.
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18/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Climate Finance


Recently, the Finance Minister of India and her US counterpart met for the eighth ministerial meeting of the U.S.-India Economic and Financial partnership.
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Biden-Xi Summit


Recently, President Joe Biden of the United States and Chinese President Xi Jinping met for the first virtual bilateral meeting. The meeting ended with the clear divergences in the positions taken by the two sides.
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Milestone for LGBTQ Rights


The senior advocate Saurabh Kirpal could be be India’s first openly gay judge. After deferment for four times, the Supreme Court Collegium has finally recommended his name as judge of the Delhi High Court.
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Renewable Energy Production by Thermal Power Plants


Recently, Ministries of Power and New and Renewable Energy released guidelines which allows thermal generation companies to set up renewable energy generation capacity and supply power to consumers under existing Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs).
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Campaign on SafaiMitra Suraksha Challenge


Recently, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched a week-long awareness campaign on SafaiMitra Suraksha Challenge (SSC) as part of the ‘World Toilet Day’ (19th November) celebrations, to run up to the ‘Swachh Amrit Diwas’.
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First Audit Diwas: CAG


Recently, the Prime Minister unveiled the statue of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel at the office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India to mark the First Audit Diwas (16th November, 2021).
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Purvanchal Expressway: UP


Recently, Pochampally village in Telangana was selected as one of the Best Tourism Villages byUnited Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) .
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Pochampally is One of the Best Tourism Villages: UNWTO


Recently, Pochampally village in Telangana was selected as one of the Best Tourism Villages byUnited Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) .
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‘Duare Ration’ Scheme: WB


The West Bengal government launched the ‘Duare Ration’ (ration at doorstep) scheme for providing food grains under the Public Distribution System (PDS) at the doorstep for the entire population of the State.
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Babasaheb Purandare


Babasaheb Purandare, a noted Historian and writer of India, has passed away recently.
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17/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Norovirus


Recently, a highly contagious virus named Norovirus has been detected in Kerala.
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Kaiser-i-Hind Butterfly


Recently, Arunachal Pradesh has approved the large, brightly coloured Kaiser-i-Hind as the State butterfly.
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SITMEX-2021


The third edition of the trilateral naval exercise Singapore-India-Thailand Maritime Exercise (SITMEX) has been conducted in the Andaman Sea of the Indian Ocean.
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Devasahayam Pillai


Devasahayam Pillai, an 18th-century Hindu convert to Christianity, would be the first Indian layman (a non-ordained member of the Church) to be made a saint.
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Reopening Kartarpur Corridor


The government is considering reopening the Kartarpur Sahib Gurudwara corridor to Pakistan to allow Sikh pilgrims to cross over, more than 20 months after it was shut down due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
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Covid-19 Blow to Diabetes Care


Recently, 21 trekkers died at the Lamkhaga Pass trek in four mountaineering and trekking expeditions which once again puts the spotlight on the importance of right weather forecasting.
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Weather Forecasting


Recently, 21 trekkers died at the Lamkhaga Pass trek in four mountaineering and trekking expeditions which once again puts the spotlight on the importance of right weather forecasting.
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Unified Payments Interface (UPI)


The Unified Payments Interface (UPI) payments system has cut across the Indian socio-economic digital divide amazingly fast.
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Regulating Cryptocurrency


The Prime Minister of India chaired a meeting regarding the management of the cryptocurrency sector. Citing the unregulated nature of the crypto market, he called for taking progressive and forward-looking steps.
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Internal Displacement


According to a report (Mid-Year Trends 2021 Report) by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), nearly 51 million people were internally displaced across 33 countries due to conflict and violence in the first six months of 2021.
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16/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Onake Obavva


Onake Obavva was a woman warrior who fought the forces of Hyder Ali single-handedly with a pestle (‘onake’ in Kannada) in Chitradurga in the 18th century. The Karnataka government has decided to celebrate ‘Onake Obavva Jayanti’ on 11th November throughout the state from this year (2021).
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New Draft Guidelines for Accessibility Standards


The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has issued draft guidelines for new accessibility standards. Under these almost all television channels are required to ensure that they either carry captions or sign language to help the hearing impaired understand the programming.
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Mineral Conservation and Development (Amendment) Rules, 2021


The Ministry of Mines has notified the Mineral Conservation and Development (Amendment) Rules, 2021 to amend the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules (MCDR), 2017.
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Atmanirbhar Bharat: Concerns


The UK India Business Council (UKIBC) has released a report titled ‘Road to a UK-India Free Trade Agreement: Enhancing the Partnership and Achieving Self-reliance’.
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Minerals Concession (Fourth Amendment) Rules, 2021


The Ministry of Mines has notified the Minerals (other than Atomic and Hydro Carbons Energy Mineral) Concession (Fourth Amendment) Rules, 2021.
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CharDham Project


The Supreme Court (SC) has spoken of the need to balance national security concerns with environmental issues in the context of the Army’s request to expand the CharDham Project (CDP) roads leading to the Indo-China border.
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Janjatiya Gaurav Divas: 15th November


The Union Cabinet has approved 15th November as Janjatiya Gaurav Divas to commemorate the brave tribal freedom fighters as part of the year-long celebrations of 75 years of India’s Independence.
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Nutrition Smart Village Initiative


A programme on “Nutrition Smart Village” will be initiated to strengthen the Poshan Abhiyan.
It will be part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, to commemorate the 75th year of Independence of India.
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MPLAD Scheme


The Union Cabinet has approved the restoration of the Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) for the remaining part of Financial Year 2021-22 till 2025-26.
It will be co-terminus with the period of the 15th Finance Commission.
The scheme was suspended for two financial years (2020-21 and 2021-22).
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India Sweden Innovation Meet


India is well on its way to meet and exceed its Paris Climate commitments.
Sweden’s goal is of achieving net-zero emissions by 2045 and negative net emissions following that.
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Delhi Declaration on Afghanistan


The Delhi Regional Security Dialogue on Afghanistan was held. The meeting was composed of National Security Advisors’ (NSA) of regional countries and chaired by the Indian NSA.
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15/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

RBI: Banks to place consumer education info on websites


As per current norms, loan turns overdue in case it is not repaid on the due date fixed by bank.
RBI noted observed that, due dates for repayments are not specifically mentioned sometimes, in the loan agreements. Instead, a description of due dates is mentioned. It led to different interpretations.
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World’s largest solar power park in Bhadla


The solar park is located in Bhadla, a dry & sandy region in Rajasthan. It spans over 14,000 acres. The Park comprises of 10 million solar panels at the park. These solar panels contribute to an operational capacity of 2245 MW
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14/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Cyclone


Cyclones are rapid inward air circulation around a low-pressure area. The air circulates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere.
Cyclones are usually accompanied by violent storms and bad weather. .
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Climate Change and The Eastern Ghats


Spread across some 75,000 sq. km. from Odisha to southern Tamil Nadu, Eastern Ghats play an important dual role in fostering biodiversity and storing energy in trees. The Eastern Ghats consist of different eco-regions with its range from south to north along the east coast of India.
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Drainage Patterns and Drainage Systems of India


The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as ‘drainage’ and the network of such channels is called a ‘drainage system’.
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El Niño & Drought


In a recent study by Indian Institute of Science’s (IISc) Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (CAOS), it has been found that El Niño was not the only cause for droughts during the Summer Monsoon in the Indian Subcontinent.
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Heat Waves and Heat Dome


The Pacific North-west, known for its moderate climate, is experiencing a “historic” heat wave. The heat wave is being described as a “Heat Dome”.
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Pitt’s India Act


For political matters, the Board of Control was created and for commercial affairs, the Court of Directors was appointed.
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Government of India Act 1858


The Revolt of 1857 served as a jolt to the British government.
There was widespread resentment against the company in Britain as the policies of the company were blamed for the revolt.
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The Carnatic Wars


Though the British and the French came to India for trading proposes, they were ultimately drawn into the politics of India.
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British Conquest for Bengal: Battles of Plassey and Buxar


In Mughal Period: Bengal was the most fertile and the richest province of the Mughal Empire and included present day Bangladesh and states of Bihar and Odisha.
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The Company Rule in India (1773-1858)


Beginning of Rule: The British East India Company was established as a trading company in 1600 and transformed into a ruling body in 1765.
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13/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Reflections On The Quasi-Federal Democracy


Parliamentary disruption is quite a common phenomenon in the Indian political system. Amidst the disruption, a large number of Bills affecting the federal structure of the State (for eg. the three Farm Laws Bills), have been passed without any deliberation in the Parliament.
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Stimulus For Governance


It is argued that since Independence, India has often fallen short of efficient execution of policies. Notwithstanding the huge progress made in areas such as space and information technology, India appears to be struggling in several basic, yet key, social sector areas such as healthcare, education, sanitation, housing and food security.
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Social Media and Youth


Recently, Instagram and its parent company, facebook faced public backlash after Reports suggesting their usage has a negative impact on youth. Facebook whistleblower, Frances Haugen also revealed that for the big social media companies, profit is a higher priority than youth’s mental health. This has brought forth the impact such social media apps and websites have on the youth.
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Tax Justice in the Global World


Recently, Pandora Papers investigation revealed that many of the world’s wealthiest people have used tax havens and other nefarious means to evade taxation. This has brought into limelight the concept of tax justice and why elimination of tax abuse and tax havens should be seen as a human rights issue.
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Council of Ministers


Recently, the Prime Minister expanded and reshuffled his Council of Ministers (COM). The Prime Minister now has 77 ministers, nearly half of them new.
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Federalism and Emerging Challenges


Recently, several states have complained about the growing crisis of Indian federalism. They have argued about the Ordinances and the Bills brought by the Centre which encroaches on their area of legislation, which is an assault on the federal structure of the Constitution.
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Capacity Building for Conflict Resolution – 2nd ARC


Conflict is an unavoidable facet of human life. The maturity of a society is thus measured not so much by the absence of conflict in it as the ability of its institutions and procedures for resolving it.
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Capacity Building for Conflict Resolution – 2nd ARC


CHAPTER 4. Land Related Issues:
Implementation of land reforms in rural areas in the 1950s and 1960s abolished intermediaries and considerably reduced agrarian unrest, while it resulted in the emergence of a new class of land owners.
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Basic Structure Doctrine: Kesavananda Bharati Case


Main petitioner, Kesavananda Bharati, of Kesavananda Bharati Sripadagalvaru and Ors v State of Kerala Case, 1973 (known for the basic structure doctrine of the Supreme Court), passed away.
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2/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Ocean Research Vessel- Sagar Nidhi


Recently, the Union Minister of Earth Sciences visited the Indian Subcontinent’s Pioneer Ocean Research Vessel (ORV) Ship SagarNidhi.
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Indian Navy Frigate Tushil: P1135.6 Class


Recently, the 7th Indian Navy Frigate of P1135.6 class, named Tushil, was launched at Yantar Shipyard, Kaliningrad, Russia.
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Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar


Recently, the Prime Minister has paid homage to Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar on 114th Thevar Jayanthi (Guru Pooja).
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Gurupurab Proposed to be Declared “World Pedestrian Day”


Recently, Punjab Police has proposed to the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways that the birth anniversary (Gurpurab) of Guru Nanak Dev be declared as ‘World Pedestrian Day’ to spread awareness on road safety.
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Glasgow Glacier: Antarctica


Recently, the 100-km long body of ice in Antarctica, which has been experiencing rapid melting, was formally named Glasgow after the Glasgow climate summit.
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Learning Farming Practices from World


According to the recently appeared paper titled: “Integrated farming with intercropping increases food production while reducing environmental footprint”, small farm holders in India can grow more food and have reduced environmental footprint.
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World Heritage Sites & Climate Change


The first ever scientific assessment of the amounts of greenhouse gases emitted from and absorbed by forests (2001-2020) in UNESCO World Heritage sites has found that forests in World Heritage sites play a vital role in mitigating climate change.
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Making Peace with Nature: UNEP Report


The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has released the ‘Making Peace with Nature’ report, ahead of the fifth session of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA-5).
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Exemption from Personal Data Protection (PDP) Law


The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has asked for exemption from the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Law (Data Protection Bill 2019).
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Protocol to Prevent Human Trafficking: SCO


The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), in its 19th meet (of Prosecutors General) held in New Delhi, adopted a protocol to strengthen cooperation in preventing and combating growing menace of human trafficking, especially women and children.
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1/11/2021 DAILY TOPICS

National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013


The National Food Security Act 2013 (also ‘Right to Food Act’) is an Indian Act of Parliament which aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of the country’s 1.2 billion people
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31/10/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Gray Hanuman Langur


A troop of Gray langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) with their pelage (fur or hair) coloured blue was spotted in an industrial neighbourhood of Ankleshwar in Gujarat.
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United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)


United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is a special program of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children.
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Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)


Maharashtra has become the first state in the country to integrate its land records with the web portal of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).
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Sustainable Development


NITI Aayog has released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) India Index (SDG Index 2.0).
The index documents the progress made by India’s States and UTs towards achieving the 2030 SDG targets.
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World Health Organization (WHO)


World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations’ specialized agency for Health was founded in 1948. Its headquarters are situated in Geneva, Switzerland.
There are 194 Member States, 150 country offices, six regional offices.
It is an inter-governmental organization and works in collaboration with its member states usually through the Ministries of Health.
The WHO provides leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.
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Midday Meal Scheme: New Study


It found that midday meals leave a long-lasting impact. Children of mid-day meal scheme beneficiaries show better growth.
The study used the nationally representative data on cohorts of mothers and their children by birth year and socio-economic status spanning 23 years.
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Malnutrition in India


The reason for mapping hunger is to ensure that the world achieves “Zero Hunger by 2030”— one of the Sustainable Development Goals (Goal 2) laid out by the United Nations.
Although, achieving zero hunger requires not only addressing hunger, but also the associated aspect of malnutrition i.e food and nutrition security.
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G-20 Agriculture Meet 2021


It is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union (EU), with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
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G20 Foreign Ministers Meeting


The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global gross domestic product, 80% of global investment and over 75% of global trade.
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National Unity Day


Rashtriya Ekta Diwas or National Unity Day is celebrated annually on October 31 to pay tribute to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, an Indian freedom fighter and independent India’s first deputy prime minister and home minister. He was instrumental in making a united India from the 565 semi-autonomous princely states and British-era colonial provinces.
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30/10/2021 DAILY TOPICS

Gati Shakti: Connecting the silos


Gati Shakti National Master Plan seeks to enhance multi-modal linkages, increase competitiveness and provide a linked platform for rolling out various infrastructure projects as part of a grand master plan.
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Women of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution


The Indian Constitution is notably one of the most inclusive constitutions in the world. It is also the longest written Constitution in the world. And it turned out to be this good because how highly educated and esteemed the panel of the Drafting Committee was.
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Stubble Burning: Need A Way Forward


With the advent of the COVID pandemic that nearly shook the whole planet, all activities, businesses, trades and even social interaction came to a halt. The bigger question of saving lives of people came to the forefront and left everything behind. Such is the vulnerability of mankind.
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Online Learning – An Impactful Educational Recourse


With the advent of the COVID pandemic that nearly shook the whole planet, all activities, businesses, trades and even social interaction came to a halt. The bigger question of saving lives of people came to the forefront and left everything behind. Such is the vulnerability of mankind.
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Dump Protectionism


U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) in its 2021 report “National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers” has pointed out that India’s average tariff rate of 17.6% is the highest of any major world economy.
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Brimato plant


Agriculture is one of the largest livelihood providers in India. Besides we see constant research and experiments in the agriculture sector that leads to various interesting innovations. One such instance we recently came across is ‘Brimato’. This brings up the question, what is ‘Brimato’.
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Samudrayan


India’s first manned ocean mission ‘Samudrayan’ was launched here on Friday by Union Minister Jitendra Singh and with this the nation joined an elite club of nations having such underwater vehicles for carrying out subsea activities.
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29/10/2021 DAILY TOPICS

World’s largest hydrogen fuel cell power plant was built in Korea


The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy announced on the 26th that it held the completion ceremony of ‘Shinincheon Bitdream Fuel Cell Power Plant’ at the Shinincheon Bitdream headquarters of Korea Southern Power in Seo-gu, Incheon. 
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28/10/2021 DAILY TOPICS

National Cybersecurity Strategy in final stages


India is in the final stage of clearing the National Cybersecurity Strategy in the aftermath of increasing cyber-attacks and threats from nation-state actors against India.
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G-20 joint Finance, Health ministers meet in Rome


Union Minister of Finance & Corporate Affairs, Nirmala Sitharaman, is on the official visit to Italy for attending ‘G20 Joint Finance and Health Ministers’ meeting in Rome.
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Ballistic missile Agni-V successfully test-fired


India has successfully test-fired a surface-to-surface ballistic missile called Agni-5 on October 27, 2021
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‘Knock every door’ campaign for Second-dose Vaccination

Union Health Ministry has asked states and Union Territories to come up with district-level plan and launch a “Har Ghar Dastak” (Knock every door) campaign across poor performing districts.
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India applies for vaccine loans from ADB & AIIB

India applied for a $2 billion loan from Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) to purchase about 700 million Covid-19 vaccines.
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MoD Rajnath Singh launched WBPMP, 1st Project Management Governance by Military Engineer Services

Union Minister Rajnath Singh, Ministry of Defence (MoD), launched Web Based Project Monitoring Portal (WBPMP) for Military Engineer Services (MES) from New Delhi. It is the first project management Governance to be implemented by the MES.
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Georissa mawsmaiensis: New Species of Micro Snail Discovered from Meghalaya

A team of scientists from Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment ( ATREE ), Bengaluru has discovered a new species of micro snail, named “Georissa mawsmaiensis”, from Mawsmai, a limestone cave in Meghalaya. The last such discovery was made in 1851(around 170 years ago).
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Afghanistan’s economy is imploding: UNDP

The United Nations has said that Afghanistan’s economy is imploding, with all but three per cent of households expected to fall below the poverty line in coming months.
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India’s productivity challenge is especially steep in service sectors

Value-addition per worker needs to rise sharply in several fields for the country to enhance prosperity and reduce inequality. It is known that productivity is the key to economic prosperity. How do we raise the productivity of service workers? This is one of the biggest challenges that India faces which hasn’t yet received much attention.
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Open Network for Digital Commerce

The department for promotion of industry and internal trade (DPIIT) in the ministry of commerce and industry is building an open network for digital commerce (ONDC), designed to curb digital monopolies and standardize the on-boarding of retailers on e-commerce sites.
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German Peace Prize 2021

Zimbabwean novelist and filmmaker Tsitsi Dangarembga on October 24, 2021, was awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade 2021 for her artistic work as well as her political commitment. 62-year-old Dangarembga has been fighting against corruption and freedom for years. She is a ‘widely audible voice of Africa in contemporary literature’, the jury noted. In her acceptance speech, she called for a fundamental shift to overcome racial hierarchy and the violence in Zimbabwe.
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Government amends Indian Telegraph Right of Way Rules, 2021

Fixes one-time compensation at ₹1,000 per km
The government notified Indian Telegraph Right of Way (Amendment) Rules, 2021 to incorporate the provisions related to nominal one-time compensation and uniform procedure for establishment of over-ground telegraph line in the Indian Telegraph Right of Way Rules, 2016, and it has fixed a cap of ₹1,000 per km.
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Interesting Facts about India

India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.

When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)

The name ‘India’ is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.

The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name ‘Hindustan’ combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.

Chess was invented in India.

Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.

The ‘Place Value System’ and the ‘Decimal System’ were developed in India in 100 B.C.

India is the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest Country in

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PRADAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA

The Government in the President’s address in the Joint Session of Parliament in May 2014 had announced that “By the time the nation completes 75 years of its Independence (by 2022), every family will have a pucca house with water connection, toilet facilities, 24×7 electricity supply and access”


In pursuance to this Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Housing for all was launched by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi Ji on 1 June 2015. Under this scheme, affordable houses will be built in all cities and towns using eco-friendly construction methods for the benefit of the urban poor population in India.


A similar scheme, Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin) was also launched, for rural population, later on in pursuance to the goal of Housing for all by 2022 .


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“spike protein” of 2019-nCoV”


Researchers in the United States have unveiled the structure of the “spike protein” of 2019-nCoV, the virus behind the current coronavirus disease outbreak.

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the virus a global health emergency. Also, the WHO announcedan official name for the disease- coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as COVID-19.In COVID-19, ‘CO’ stands for ‘corona,’ ‘VI’ for ‘virus,’ and ‘D’ for the disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV.”


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Mars Insight Mission

NASA’s Mars Lander InSight has recorded its first ‘Marsquake.’ It has recorded a quake of 2 or 2.5 magnitude which is hard to predict on Earth’s surface.

InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.
It will be the first mission to peer deep beneath the Martian surface, studying the planet’s interior by measuring its heat output and listening for marsquakes, which are seismic events similar to earthquakes on Earth.

It will use the seismic waves generated by marsquakes to develop a map of the planet’s deep interior.


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SUTRA PIC


The government recently unveiled SUTRA PIC programme to research on ‘indigenous’ cows.

SUTRA PIC: It stands for Scientific Utilization Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows.

Funding: The initiative is led by the Department of Science and Technology (DST). It is to be funded by multiple scientific ministries.

Partners: Department of Biotechnology, CSIR, the Ministry for AYUSH, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), among others.


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Voyager 2

Context
In an incredible feat of remote engineering, NASA has fixed one of the most intrepid explorers in human history. Voyager 2, currently some 11.5 billion miles from Earth, is back online and resuming its mission to collect scientific data on the solar system and the interstellar space beyond.

What is Voyager 2?

 Understanding Interstellar Space:
‘Inter’ means between. ‘Stellar’ refers to stars. Interstellar space is the part of space that exists between stars.
Scientists define the beginning of interstellar space as the place where the Sun’s constant flow of material and magnetic field stop affecting its surroundings.
This place is called the heliopause.

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National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA)

Context
The government in its budget 2020 has announced a National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA) with a total budget outlay of Rs 8000 Crore for a period of five years to be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST).

About the mission:
The new mission will oversee the development of quantum technologies for communications, computing, materials development and cryptography.
It will coordinate the work of scientists, industry leaders and government departments
Implementing authority: The move will be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST).
Focus area: The areas of focus for the Mission will be in fundamental science, translation, technology development, human and infrastructural resource generation, innovation and start-ups to address issues concerning national priorities.

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Genome India Project

Context
The government has cleared an ambitious gene-mapping project that is being described by those involved as the “first scratching of the surface of the vast genetic diversity of India”.

What is a genome?
Every organism’s genetic code is contained in its Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA), the building blocks of life.

A genome, simply put, is all the genetic matter in an organism. It is defined as “an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes.
Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. In humans, a copy of the entire genome, more than 3 billion DNA base pairs, is contained in all cells that have a nucleus

The discovery that DNA is structured as a “double helix” by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, for which they won a Nobel Prize in 1962, was the spark in the long, continuing quest for understanding how genes dictate life, its traits, and what causes diseases.

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GISAT-1 mission

Context
An ISRO GSLV-II rocket will launch the GISAT-1 mission. 

About:
GISAT-1 is an Indian earth observation satellite to be launched in geostationary orbit. It is tasked with continuous observation of Indian sub-continent and quick monitoring of natural hazards and disaster.
GISAT carries an imaging payload consisting of multi-spectral, multi-resolution from 50 m to 1.5 km.
It will operate in geostationary orbit above the Southern India region after being launched from Sriharikota, India.
The rocket consists of three stages and four liquid engine strap-on rocket motors that use UDMH and N2O4.

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Looming water crisis in India

Context
According to the World Resources Institute’s (WRI) Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas, India is among the 17 countries, facing “extremely high” water stress. It has more than three times the population of the other 16 countries in this category combined.

Background:
WRI report: WRI’s Aqueduct list ranked water stress, drought risk, and riverine flood risk across 189 countries and their sub-national regions, like states and provinces.
In the 17 countries facing extremely high water stress, agriculture, industry, and municipalities are drinking up 80 per cent of available surface and groundwater in an average year.
India ranked 13 on Aqueduct’s list of “extremely high” water-stressed countries, close to “Day Zero” conditions when the taps run dry. 
Northern India faces severe groundwater depletion. 

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Reading the new State of Forest Report 2019

Context
State of Forest Report 2019 has shown a 1,275 sq km gain in very dense forest, but what this statistic masks is the fact that the country continues to lose its best natural forests. A look at what was gained and lost

Background
The report is published by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) which has been mandated to assess the forest and tree resources of the country including wall-to-wall forest cover mapping in a biennial cycle.
Starting 1987, 16 assessments have been completed so far. ISFR 2019 is the 16th report in the series.
India is among few countries in the world where forest cover is consistently increasing.
The total forest and tree cover of the country is 80.73 million hectare which is 24.56 percent of the geographical area of the country.
Compared to the assessment of 2017, there is an increase of 5,188 sq. km in the total forest and tree cover of the country.
Out of this, the increase in the forest cover has been observed as 3,976 sq km and that in tree cover is 1,212 sq. km; Range increase in forest cover has been observed in open forest followed by very dense forest and moderately dense forest and the top three states showing increase in forest cover are Karnataka (1,025 sq. km) followed by Andhra Pradesh (990 sq km) and Kerala (823 sq km).”

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Antibiotics, river contamination and healthcare

Several rivers in the world, including those in India, have been reported to have high concentrations of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, oxytetracycline and ofloxacin.
Hundreds of sites around the world, from Thames to Tigris, are awash with dangerously high levels of antibiotics.
Our rivers and water bodies are life-supporting assets. But river pollution has become a major cause of concern across the world in past few decades. High concentrations of chemicals, particularly drugs, in surface and ground water pose many risks.
In a global study researchers tested 711 sites in 72 countries and found antibiotics in 65% of them. In 111 of the sites, concentrations of antibiotics exceeded safe levels, with the worst cases more than 300 times over the safe limit. Most of the polluted sites were in Asia and Africa.

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World Elephant Day: India’s jumbos stare at a worrying future

Today only about 27,000 wild elephants remain in India, as opposed to a million a decade ago. There has been a 98 per cent nose-dive in their population, according to research.

India is one of the 17 mega diverse countries of the world.

It is home to 7-8 per cent of the world’s recorded species from top predators such as the Asiatic lions, Bengal tigers to large herbivores such as the Asian elephant and one-horned rhino.

This rich fauna has not just been an integral part of India’s environmental history but has also been instrumental in shaping several indigenous cultures. In fact, many religions in India stem from animism, which entails that soul exists in animals and plants.

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Heat Waves

In early June 2019, an intense heat wave scorched many parts of India which led to the death of 36 people in the country, mostly from Andhra Pradesh.

In 2019, sparse rainfall during the pre-monsoon season, along with a delayed monsoon, has made the heat more unbearable.

The NDMA official added that Churu (Rajasthan), where temperature crossed the 50 degrees Celsius mark, has not registered a single death whereas parts of Andhra Pradesh have witnessed most number of deaths, where the temperature was relatively lower.

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Sukhna Lake becomes a ‘living entity’

The Punjab and Haryana high court has declared Sukhna Lake a “living entity” or “legal person” with rights, duties and liabilities of a living person. It also declared all citizens of Chandigarh as loco parentis (in the place of a parent) to save the lake from extinction.

Sukhna Lake is situated at the foothill of Shivalik Hills in the city of Chandigarh. The famous Rock Garden of Chandigarh is located on the banks of this lake.

The Lake was created in 1958, by damming a seasonal stream Sukhna Choe, which cascade from the Shivalik Hills.

Sukhna Reservoir was also designed by Le Corbusier (Chief Architect of Chandigarh city) and the Chief Engineer P L Verma in the year 1974.
Several migratory birds like cranes, Siberian ducks, storks etc., can be seen during the season.

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“India’s nomination for 2020 World Heritage List”

Government of India has submitted two nomination dossiers namely ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.

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Various Military Exercises

indian Armed Forces conduct/participates in various bilateral and multilateral military exercises with foreign countries. The details of such exercise include the following


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