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31 Jan

Exogenic Forces

What are Exogenic Forces?

  • ➢ The forces which derive their strength from the earth’s exterior or originate within the earth’s atmosphere are called as exogenic forces or external forces.
  • ➢ The action of exogenic forces results in wearing down and hence they are considered as land wearing forces.

Exogenic Processes or Denudation

  • ➢ The processes which occur on earth’s surface due to the influence of exogenic forces are called as exogenic processes or exogenic geomorphic processes.
  • ➢ Weathering, mass wasting, erosion, and deposition are the main exogenic processes.
  • ➢ All the exogenic processes are covered under a general term- denudation, which means strip off or uncover.
  • ➢ The elements of nature capable of doing these exogenic processes are termed as geomorphic agents (or exogenic geomorphic agents). E.g. the wind, water, waves etc.
  • ➢ Note: A process is a force applied on earth materials affecting the same. An agent is a mobile medium (like running water, moving ice, winds, waves etc) which removes, transport and deposits earth materials.
  • ➢ Geomorphic processes and geomorphic agents especially exogenic, unless stated separately, are one and the same.
  • ➢ Gravity and gradients are the two things which make these agents mobile. ➢ All the movements either within the earth or on the surface of the earth occur due to gradients– from higher levels to lower levels, from high pressure to low pressure etc.
  • ➢ The exogenic forces derive their energy from atmosphere determined by the ultimate energy from the sun and also the gradient created by tectonic factors. We have already discussed in previous articles that slopes on earth surface are mainly created by tectonic factors or earth movements due to endogenic forces.
  • ➢ We know that force applied per unit area is called as stress. Stress is produced in a solid by pushing or pulling.
  • ➢ The gravitational force acts upon all earth materials having sloping surface and tends to produce movement of matter in the down-slope direction. This creates stress and induces deformation to the particles.


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