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31 Jan

Movements of ocean water Waves, Tides and Ocean Currents

Our Geography notes continue. Having covered the most important concepts in land, we are now dealing with the water (hydrosphere). In the last article, we have seen the ocean bottom topography. In this comprehensive post, we will cover the movements of ocean water – waves, tides and ocean currents. We hope the notes will turn highly handy for quick learning and lastminute revision. Movements of ocean water: The classification You all know that the ocean water is never still. There are different types of movements of ocean water under the influence of different physical characteristics like temperature, salinity, density, etc. Movements of ocean water are also affected by external forces like the sun, moon and the winds.

The major movements of the ocean waters can be classified into three. They are: 1. Waves 2. Tides 3. Ocean Currents Waves and the ocean currents are horizontal movements of ocean waters while the tide is a kind of vertical movement of the ocean water.


  • Waves are nothing but the oscillatory movements that result in the rise and fall of water surface.
  • Waves are a kind of horizontal movements of the ocean water. They are actually the energy, not the water as such, which moves across the ocean surface.
  • This energy for the waves is provided by the wind.
  • In a wave, the movement of each water particle is in a circular manner.
  • A wave has two major parts: the raised part is called as the crest while the low point is called as the trough.


  • Tide are the periodical rise and fall of the sea levels, once or twice a day, caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the sun, the moon and the rotation of the earth.
  • They are a vertical movement of waters and are different from movements of ocean water caused by meteorological effects like the winds and atmospheric pressure changes.
  • Note: The water movements which are caused by the meteorological effects like the said above are called as surges and they are not regular like tides.
  • The moon’s gravitational pull to a great extent is the major cause of the occurrence of tides (the moon’s gravitational attraction is more effective on the earth than that of the sun).
  • Sun’s gravitational pull and the centrifugal force due to the rotation of earth are the other forces which act along with the moon’s gravitational pull.


For More Details About Movements of ocean water Waves, Tides and Ocean Currents refer PDF..!


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