Ancient India: Early Cities and Republics
In the earliest cities
• These cities developed about 4700 years ago.
• Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts.
• The part to the west was smaller but higher: citadels
• The part to the east was larger but lower: lower town
• The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern and that made the walls strong.
• Special buildings were constructed on the citadel. For example, in Mohenjodaro, a tank:
• Kalibangan and Lothal had fire altars, where sacrifices may have been performed.
• Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal had elaborate store houses.
• Houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard.
• Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water.
• Many of these cities had covered drains.
• All three — houses, drains and streets — were probably planned and built at the same time.
• Most of the things are made of stone, shell and metal, including copper, bronze, gold and silver.
• Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels.
• Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.
• Harappans also made seals out of stone which are rectangular and had an animal carved on them.
• Made pots with beautiful black designs.
• Cotton was probably grown at Mehrgarh from about 7000 years ago.
• Perhaps some women and men may have been specialists to perform crafts.
• The Harappans probably got copper from present-day Rajasthan, and even from Oman.
• Tin may have bought from present-day Afghanistan and Iran.
• Gold could have come all the way from present-day Karnataka.
• A new tool, the plough, was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds but wooden plough not found while excavation.
• As this region does not receive heavy rainfall, some form of irrigation may have been used.
• Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch, where there was fresh water and fertile soil.
• Dholavira was divided into three parts but other Harappan cities 2 parts.
For More Details About Ancient India: Early Cities and Republics refer PDF..!