Medieval india religious political affairs & others
Beyond Big Cities: Tribal Societies
• Some powerful tribes controlled large territories. In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the 13th and 14th centuries.
• Kamal Khan Gakkhar, of Gakkhar tribe, was a noble (mansabdar) by Emperor Akbar.
• In Multan and Sind, the Langahs and Arghuns dominated extensive regions before they were subdued by the Mughals.
• In the western Himalaya lived the shepherd tribe of Gaddis.
• The distant north-eastern part of the subcontinent too was entirely dominated by tribes – the Nagas, Ahoms etc.
• In many areas of present-day Bihar and Jharkhand, Chero, chiefdoms had emerged by the 12th century. Raja Man Singh, Akbar’s general, attacked and defeated them in 1591.
• The Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka were home to Kolis[also in Gujarat], Berads etc.
• South got Koragas, Vetars, Maravars etc.
• Bhils spread across western and central India. By the late 16th century, many of them had become settled agriculturists and some even zamindars.
• The Gonds were found in great numbers across the present-day states of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
• They lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana.
• They practiced shifting cultivation.
• The Akbar Nama, a history of Akbar’s reign, mentions the Gond kingdom of Garha Katanga that had 70,000 villages.
• The administrative system of these kingdoms was becoming centralized.
• The emergence of large states changed the nature of Gond society.
• Certain Gond chiefs now wished to be recognized as Rajputs.
• They migrated to the Brahmaputra valley from present-day Myanmar in the 13th century.
• They created a new state by suppressing the older political system of the bhuiyans (landlords).
• During the 16th century, they annexed the kingdoms of the Chhutiyas (1523) and of Koch-Hajo (1581) and subjugated many other tribes.
• They know to use firearms as early as the 1530s.
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