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16 Mar

“India’s nomination for 2020 World Heritage List”



Government of India has submitted two nomination dossiers namely ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.



  • Dholavira:
  • The city of Dholavira located in Khadir island of the Rann of Kutchch belonged to matured Harappan phase.
  • Dholavira is one of the five largest Harappan sites in the world and the most prominent archaeological site in India belonging to Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Dholavira was known for the excellent water storage system and town planning. The inhabitants of Dholavira were master water conservationists.
  • No significant rivers were flowing by, just two rivulets — Mansar and Manhar. Nine reservoirs were built around the city to store water. The city itself is divided into three parts — the Citadel, the Middletown and the Lower Town.
  • Monuments of the Deccan Sultanate
  • The ‘Monuments of the Deccan Sultanate’ is a serial property comprising of four component constitute the most representative, most authentic and best-conserved examples of Deccani Sultanate monuments in India.
  • The series demonstrates the exemplary convergence of national and international styles of Islamic architecture and their intersections with the prevalent Hindu architecture of the period southern Indian in present-day Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
    • Bahmani Monuments at Gulbarga, Karnataka                            
    • Bahmani and Barid Shahi Monuments at Bidar, Karnataka      
    • Adil Shashi Monuments at Bijapur, Karnataka                              
    • Qutb Shahi Monuments at Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh


What is UNESCO’s World Heritage List?
  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
  • This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.
  • The world heritage list aims to recruit the world community in identifying cultural and natural propertiesof “outstanding universal value.”
The Convention:The 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage developed from the merging of two separate movements: the first focusing on the preservation of cultural sites, and the other dealing with the conservation of nature.The Convention defines the kind of natural or cultural sites which can be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List.India ratified the Convention in 1977. 


UNESCO Heritage Site in India:
  • There are 38 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The sites are broken down into the following categories: 30 cultural sites, 7 natural sites, and 1 mixed site.

UNESCO Heritage Sites in India

1Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (1985)2Sun Temple, Konarak (1984)
3Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam (1985)4Keoladeo National Park (1985)
5Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar (2002)6Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)
7Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi (1993)8Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)
9Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)10Great Living Chola Temples (1987) 
11Red Fort Complex (2007)12Agra Fort (1983)
13Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)14Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh (1986)
15Champaner-Pavagahdh Archaeological Park, Gujarat (2004)16Taj Mahal (1983)
17Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)18Mountain Railways of India (1999, 2005, and 2008)
19Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)20Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988)
21Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh (1989)22Sundarbans National Park (1987)
23Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh (2003)24Western Ghats (2012)
25Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh (1986)26Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013)
27Ajanta Caves (1983)28Rani ki vav – The Queen’s Stepwell (2014)
29Ellora Caves (1983)30Great Himalayan National Park (2014)
31Elephanta Caves (1987)32Nalanda (2016)
33Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus – Formerly Victoria Terminus (2004)34Khangchendzonga National Park (2016)
35Historic City of Ahmadabad (2017)36The Architectural Works of Le Corbusier (2016)
37Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (2018)38.The walled city of Jaipur (2019)
 Significance of the inclusion:
  • UNESCO seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
  • The international recognition to the heritage precinct can significantly boost the local economy in various manners. It also gives a tremendous fillip to domestic and international tourism leading to increased employment generation, the creation of world-class infrastructure and heritage memorabilia.
  • Furthermore, inclusion into the UNESCO’s list becomes a matter of pride to the nation.




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