Caste: An important example of the caste factor providing impetus to linguistic regionalism can be seen in the case of Tamil Nadu. Tamil regionalism gained ground as a result of non-Brahmin movement. Non-Brahmin castes of Tamil speaking region had been able to provide a powerful, united thrust against Brahmins who had enjoyed unquestioned dominance in economy, society and polity.
Religion: Religion like caste does not play a significant role except when it is combined with dominance and linguistic homogeneity as in Punjab or fed on a sense of religions orthodoxy and economic deprivation as in Jammu and
If casteism reinforced and propelled linguistic regionalism in case of Tamil Nadu, the demand for the formation of Punjabi Suba though presented in linguistic garb had religious overtones. They were mainly responsible for evoking people’s political loyalties on massive scale rather than their love for their mother tongue.
It is difficult to qualify the mix of communalism and linguism in this particular case.
Taking into account these three factors i.e. language, caste and religion one can say that the study of regionalism in Punjab and Tamil Nadu makes it very clear that political movements for regional demands were carried out formally in the name of language but in reality they had substantive non-linguistic bases too. Economic Basis:
But some studies make it very clear that demand for Punjabi language state was certainly reinforced by regular invocation of Punjabi-speaking masses loyalty towards Sikh religion.