Indian History Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakhs sq.km). The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie. for 800 years.
But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before BC.2700.
Features of Indus Valley Civilization
• BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie for 800 years.
• On the valleys of river Indus.
• Also known as Harappan Civilization.
• Beginning of city life.
• Harappan Sites discovered by – Dayaram Sahni (1921) – Montgomery
district, Punjab, Pakistan.
• Mohenjo-Daro discovered by – R. D. Banerji – Larkana district, Sind,
• The city was divided into Citadel(west) and Lower Town(east).
• Red pottery painted with designs in black.
• Stone weights, seals, special beads, copper tools, long stone blades etc.
• Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
• Artificially produced – Faience.
• Specialists for handicrafts.
• Import of raw materials.
• Plough was used.
• Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H
symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
• Sugar cane not cultivated, horse, iron not used.
Indus Valley Sites and Specialties
• Seals out of stones
• Citadel outside on banks of river Ravi
• Great Bath, Great Granary, Dancing Girl, Man with Beard, Cotton, Assembly hall
• The term means” Mount of the dead”
• On the bank of river Indus
• Believed to have been destructed by flood or invasion (Destruction was not gradual).
• Bank of Indus river. – discovered by Gopal Majumdar and Mackey (1931)
• Pre-Harappan culture – Jhangar Culture and Jhukar Culture
• Only cite without citadel.
• At Rajasthan on the banks of river Ghaggar, discovered by A.Ghosh (1953)
• Fire Altars
• Bones of camel
• Evidence of furrows
• Horse remains (even though Indus valley people didn’t use horses).
• Known as third capital of the Indus Empire.
• At Gujarat near Bhogava river, discovered by S.R. Rao (1957)
• Fire Altars
• Beside the tributary of Sabarmati
• Dockyard and earliest port
• double burial
• Rice husk
• House had front entrance (exception).
• Punjab, on the banks of river Sutlej. Discovered by Y.D Sharma (1955)
• Dog buried with humans.
• On banks of lost river Saraswathi
• Barley Cultivation.
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