Medieval India: Mughal Dynasty
The Mughal Dynasty
• From the latter half of the 16th century, they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi until in the 17th century they controlled nearly all of the subcontinent.
• They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.
Babur – The Founder of Mughal Empire
• The first Mughal emperor (1526- 1530)
• Political situation in north-west India was suitable for Babur to enter India .
• Sikhandar Lodi died in 1517 and Ibrahim Lodi succeded him. I. Lodhi tried to create a strong centralised empire which alarmed Afghan chiefs as well as Rajaputs.
• So in 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi and his Afghan supporters, at (First) Panipat (War) and captured Delhi and Agra.
• The establishment of an empire in the Indo-Gangetic valley by Babur was a threat to Rana Sanga.
• So in 1527 – defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies at Khanwa [a place west of Agra].
Babur’s advent was significant :
• Kabul and Qandhar became an integral part of an empire comprising North India . Since these areas had always acted as a staging place for an invasion of India and provide security from external invasions
• These two areas mentioned above helped to strengthen India’s foreign trade with China and Mediterranean seaports .
• His war tactics were very expensive since he used heavy artillery which ended the era of small kingdoms because these smaller ones cant afford it .
• He introduced a concept of the state which has to be based on strength and prestige of Crown instead of religious interference. This provided a precedent and direction to his successors.
Humayun [1530-1540, 1555-1556]
• Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father. His brothers were each given a province.
• Sher Khan defeated Humayun which made him forced to flee to Iran.
• In Iran, Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died in an accident the following year.
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