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14 Dec

Nomadism to Sedentary settlements

Nomadism to Sedentary settlements
The favourable climate, better rainfalls, warm atmosphere and increased food security led to reduction in nomadism to seasonally sedentary settlement and increased population They moved to new areas such as nearby rivers which provided water First human colonization of the Ganga plains took place during this period
Disposal of dead and making of Graves
The sedentary settlements lead to beginning of the tradition of various ways of intentional disposal of the dead The first evidence of intentional disposal of the dead comes from Mesolithic EraMesolithic human burials have been found at Bagor in Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Gujarat, Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh etc The dead were buried in graves both in extended and crouched position {in crouched position knees are bent and the upper body is brought forward and down} In some cases two individuals were buried in a single grave The dead were occasionally provided with grave offerings which include chunks of meat, grinding stones, stone, bone and antler ornaments, and pieces of haematite
Mesolithic Art
The Mesolithic man was a lover of art, evident from the paintings in several thousand rock shelters in the Vindhyan sandstone hills in central India The paintings have been found in both inhabited and uninhabited shelters The paintings are made mostly in red and white pigments, made from the nodules found in rocks and earth The subject matter of the paintings are mostly wild animals and hunting scenes, though there are some related to human social and religious life such as sex and child
birth These Rock arts are paintings {petrographs} and engravings {petroglyphs} done in rock shelters or natural caves In India also, most of the rock art, especially paintings and carvings, have been known to exist from the Mesolithic Age, which continued to Neolithic Age, Iron Age and early historic period This art not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modern paintings
Important Mesolithic Sites
In Rajasthan, Bagor is almost largest Mesolithic site in India Other major Mesolithic sites in Rajasthan are Tilwara, Pachpadra basin and Sojat Area etc
In Guajarat, mesolithic sites include those on banks of river Sabarmati asuch as Akhaj, Valsana, Hirpur, Langhanj etc
In Uttar Pradesh, Sarai Nahar Rai, Morhana Pahar and Lekkahia are important Mesolithic sites
In Madhya Pradesh, Bhimbetka along with Adamgarh, Chaturbhujnath Nala are major Mesolithic sites
In Jharkhand Chhota nagpur plateau is a major Mesolithic site in India In Odisha, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Sundergarh are major mesolithic sites
In South India, Mesolithic sites are abundant in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

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