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16 Dec

The carts and chariots were means of transport For sea trade big boats were there to serve the purpose
Relations with Other civilizations
Indus Valley people had established trade relations other contemporary civilizations by 2000BC They conducted trade with other civilizations including Mesopotamia, Babylon by land as well as sea route The historical records of Mesopotamia mention a placeMelufta which seems to be either name of Indus River region or India itself These records describe wood, copper, gold, ivory, and exotic birds (like peacocks) being exported from Meluha The Harappans traded grain, copper utensils, mirrors, elephant ivory, cotton cloth, lapis lazuli (a semi-precious gemstone), and ceramic
jewellery for gold, silver, marine shell, copper, tin, lead, jade, and amethyst Some of these were crafted into ornaments and exported
In various cities of Mesopotamia, the Harappan seals have been found which prove these relationships
Weights and Measurements
The weights and measurements were calibrated to a considerable extent The measures were standardized and perhaps there is binary system in use A scale made up of Elephant tusk has been found at Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal
Finance, Business and Industry
There was use of many kinds of metals including Gold, Silver, Copper, Lapis Lazuli, Turquoise, Amethyst, Alabaster, jade etc It is thought that Jade came from Central Asia, Turquoise came from Iran, Amethyst came from current Maharashtra and Lapis lazuli came from Afghanistan
A Jewellery hoard has been found at Allahdino, an Indus valley Site near congregation of Indus River and Arabian sea It has a necklace of 36 carnelian beads, Bronze spacer beads and a coper bead covered with Gold foil and 20 Gold lumps
The trade was multifaceted It was operated on intraregional as well as interregional basis and had a guild system coupled with nomadic trade There are no evidences of monetary exchange
Well developed stoneware industry The manufacturing of the stone bangles was most prevalent in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Harappan civilization had an Economic Zone This economic zone was along the bank of the Sirhind river

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