The concept of Communalism has came from word “commune” which refers to the body of people who share a common identity, ideology and carry capacity to voluntarily come together. In case of India, it is great faithfulness to one’s own holy group. Communalism is defined as a mechanism to energize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. It is revealed in literature that Communalism is related with religious fundamentalism and rising intolerance.
Studies have demonstrated that communalization century. The British historian like James Mill categorized ancient period as Hindu period and medieval period as Muslim period and this ordering was further used by both the British and Indian historians. Social literature documented that in medieval period, Muslim people were underprivileged, they were also oppressed as then people of Hindu community and the ruling class included both the Muslims and Hindus
As per Abdul Ahmed, Communalism is a social phenomenon characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them. It is a dominant force in Indian scenario. Many factors such as casteism, communalism and religious fundamentalism pose challenge in India that are major threats to a secular state. They deteriorate the working and strength of a democratic secular federal state and influence against the fundamental beliefs of national life and provide means to new individuality. ‘Casteism’ and ‘Communalism’ are destroying the Indian cultural diversity.
It has been documented in reports that previously, British imperialism used communalism as a divide and rule policy. Similar kind of policies was continued by leaders after independence using various factors. The origin of communalism is very deep and diversified. Some of the roots lie in the structure and nature of Indian civilization which has different religions, is multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-castes and multi-regional. A society divided on these grounds helps the development of communal organizations. It may be emphasized that the financial condition of the Hindu and the Muslim and other communities and their different development also contributes to the development
of communalism. It is established that communalism of society is a response of the communalism of another community.
Communalism has three stages. First stage include insight of people believing in a particular religion that they have similar interests such as political, financial, social and cultural interests. For political perspective on India, Indian society is a group of people from different religions, languages and regions but not from a single country. For citizens of India, different people have different leaders, who declare themselves as national/regional/religious/caste leaders. The second stage of communalism begins when people consider that the social, monetary, cultural and political interests of people following a particular religion are dissimilar from that of the believers of other religions. This phase of communalism is termed as Liberal Communalism. People who have belief in Liberal Communalism assumed that the interests of the people of India can be amalgamated and India can be integrated as one country. The third stage of communalism is considered when people of one religion are the opponents of the people of other religions. The third phase of communalism is extremist communalism which has a concept of fear and revulsion